J. Winthrop Taylor (1817-1880) was appointed assistant surgeon in 1838. During his early naval career he served at sea and was promoted to surgeon in 1852. During the Civil War he participated in Farragut's capture of New Orleans and was involved in the Mississippi River campaign. He became Surgeon General in 1878, a post he held for 10 months. During his administration, Dr. Taylor succeeded in getting a bill through Congress appointing apothecaries as warrant officers in the Navy. He also sponsored a study of the Navy ration, and developed a revised book of instructions for medical officers, the forerunner of the Manual of the Medical Department.